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Ministère de la Sécurité publique

The Six Levels of Police Service According to Population Size

Local municipalities belonging to a greater urban community or to a census metropolitan area are served, except other specified, by a municipal police force offering level 2 services or more, according to the population. In addition, local municipalities whose population totals 50,000 inhabitants or more must be served by a municipal police force, whether its own police body or by concluding an agreement with a municipality having its own police force.

Local municipalities totalling less than 50,000 inhabitants are served by the Sûreté du Québec, except for municipalities which chose to maintain their own municipal police force.

Municipal police forces must provide a specific level of services depending on the population served or the geographic location.

Municipal police forces must provide a certain level of services depending on the population served or the geographic location. The Sûreté du Québec, which plays an additional role, provides higher level services to those offered by municipal police forces, including level 6 services.

Police forces activities are divided into four categories: policing, investigations, emergency measures and support services. The complexity of these activities increases according to service level of the police body. For example, a police body of level 1 can control a peaceful crowd whereas police bodies those of service levels 5 and 6 will have to control crowds showing high risk of agitation, uncontrolled behavior or riot. Every level of service includes, in addition, the services listed at the lower levels.

Less than 100,000 inhabitants: level 1

Policing

  • Round-the-clock patrol
  • Response to any request for help from a citizen within a reasonable time and dispatching
  • Road patrolling
  • Enforcement of the Act respecting off-highway vehicles and off-road vehicle and snowmobile trail patrol
  • Recreational boating safety
  • Transportation of accused persons
  • Hit and run incidents
  • Prevention programs
  • Crime scene securing
  • Containment

Investigations

Subject to the obligations corresponding to higher levels, the criminal or penal offences under the jurisdiction of police forces consist of the following:

  • Kidnapping
  • Sexual assault
  • Sexual offences
  • Child pornography when caught in the act
  • Assault
  • Fatal work injury, in cooperation with the Sûreté du Québec
  • Robbery
  • Taxing
  • Extortion of vulnerable persons or persons who depend on their family circle
  • Breaking and entering
  • Fire
  • Auto theft
  • Production, trafficking and possession of illicit drugs at local or street level
  • Street prostitution
  • Bad cheques, credit card or debit card fraud
  • Scams, false pretences, false statements
  • Theft and possession of stolen goods
  • Offence-related property
  • Vehicle accidents
  • Mischief
  • Criminal offence causing death or life-threatening bodily injuries, committed while driving a vehicle, in cooperation with the Sûreté du Québec
  • Reckless driving
  • Impaired driving
  • Street gang crime
  • Suspicious object or bomb threat, if negative
  • Weapons and discovery of explosives
  • Use of counterfeit money
  • Death under mysterious circumstances
  • Death or bodily harm threatening the life of a child under three years of age, in cooperation with the Sûreté du Québec
  • Disappearances
  • Runaways

Emergency Measures

  • Peaceful crowd control
  • Rescue operations
  • Forest search and rescue
  • Emergency response to local disaster

Support Services

  • Crime scene dusting and photography
  • Production and pooling of tactical and operational criminal intelligence relating to persons, groups or phenomena affecting their territory
  • Significant contribution to criminal intelligence exchanges between police forces and bodies in charge of enforcing the law
  • Management of human resources of intelligence
  • Routine contribution to the Violent Crime Linkage Analysis System (ViCLAS), the Québec criminal intelligence data bank and the Sûreté du Québec fingerprint bank
  • Detention
  • Custody of exhibits
  • Court liaison
  • Taking of a bodily substance for forensic DNA analysis
  • Warrant management and tracking of individuals
  • Police records management
  • Publics affairs
  • Québec Police Intelligence Centre (QPIC) input and retrieval
  • Internal affairs
  • Technical equipment and use of force instructor
  • Services of a breath analysis expert
  • Bertillonage
  • Information collection for the registration of sex offenders under the Sex Offender Information Registration Act (S.C. 2004, c. 10)
  • Low-risk dynamic intervention
  • Entry of data in the Québec data bank on recovered firearms

Between 100,000 and 249,999 inhabitants: level 2

Investigations

  • Murder with imminent arrest
  • Criminal negligence causing death
  • Attempted murder
  • Fatal work injury
  • Financial institution or armoured car robbery
  • Fire involving fatality
  • Series of fires
  • Major fire involving commercial, industrial, institutional, government or community buildings
  • Commercial or real estate fraud
  • Illegal lottery
  • Criminal offence causing death or life-threatening bodily injuries, committed while driving a vehicle
  • Production, trafficking and possession of illicit drugs involving suppliers of local or street dealers
  • Freight theft
  • Criminal offence committed by a crime ring
  • Keeping a common gaming or betting house and cheating
  • Counterfeit money offences

Emergency Measures

  • Crowd control involving risk of disturbance

Support Services

  • Crime scene and criminal identification expert
  • Fire scene expert
  • Reconstructionist (collision investigation)
  • Vehicle identification
  • Computer-generated composite sketching
  • Production and pooling of strategic criminal intelligence relating to persons, groups or phenomena affecting their territory

Between 250,000 and 499,999 inhabitants: level 3

Investigations

  • Murder
  • Life-threatening kidnapping
  • Extortion
  • Fatal aircraft accident
  • Proceeds of crime
  • Production, trafficking and possession of illicit drugs involving high-level suppliers
  • Gang crime corresponding to applicable service level
  • Criminal offence committed by criminal organizations operating on an inter-regional basis, in cooperation with the Sûreté du Québec
  • Child pornography
  • Procuring
  • Common bawdy-house
  • Event involving a police force, upon request by the Minister
  • Computer data mischief or theft
  • Theft, illegal use or possession of explosives without lawful excuse
  • Death or bodily harm threatening the life of a child under 3 years of age

Emergency Measures

  • Intervention involving armed and barricated suspect (no shots fired, no hostages)

Support Services

  • Physical surveillance
  • Database retrieval
  • Infiltration
  • Analysis of pure version statements
  • Dog team (drugs, guarding and tracking)
  • Special unit
  • Moderate-risk intervention
  • Return to Québec of an individual who has contravened a decision or order of the Commission d'examen des troubles mentaux

Between 500,000 and 999,999 inhabitants: level 4

Investigations

  • Murder or attempted murder committed by criminal organizations operating on an inter-regional basis, in cooperation with the Sûreté du Québec

Emergency Measures

  • Crowd control involving high risk of disturbance or riot in cooperation with the Sûreté du Québec
  • Intervention involving barricated and armed suspect, and shots fired

Support Services

  • Electronic surveillance
  • High-risk intervention
  • Special weapons and tactics team

1,000,000 inhabitants and more: level 5

Policing

  • Recreational boating safety on the St. Lawrence River

Investigations

  • Terrorist incident management
  • Importation and exportation of illicit drugs, in cooperation with the Sûreté du Québec
  • Weapons and explosives trafficking
  • Extraprovincial kidnapping
  • Betting and bookmaking
  • Criminal offence committed by a ring operating on an inter-regional basis
  • Judicial or municipal civil servant corruption
  • Commercial or real estate fraud commited by a person or an entity referred to in the Proceeds of Crime (Money Laundering) and Terrorist Financing Act (S.C. 2000, c. 17) and its regulations.

Emergency Measures

  • Helicopter operations
  • Crowd control involving high risk of disturbance or riot
  • Intervention involving hostages or an active shooter

Support services

  • Underwater diving
  • Defusing and handling of explosives (explosives experts)
  • Infiltration at top level of criminal organization
  • Polygraph and hypnosis
  • Dog team (explosives)
  • Operations security intelligence
  • Evaluation and protection of justice collaborators
  • Video interrogation support
  • Use of undercover civil agents

Level 6 services

Investigations

  • Coordination of investigations during unusual events
  • Coordination of investigations of murders and assaults by predator
  • Police cooperation to counter organized crime
  • Crime relating to State revenues, security or integrity
  • Coordination of investigations of series of fires at inter-regional level
  • Criminal offence by a ring operating in and outside Québec
  • Misappropriation of funds
  • Fraudulent securities transactions
  • Crime within provincial or federal detention centres
  • Cybersurveillance
  • International judicial cooperation

Emergency Measures

  • Coordination of recovery operations and maintenance of order during emergencies or civil disturbances of provincial scope

Support Services

  • Protection of international VIPs
  • Protection of the National Assembly
  • State security investigations and intelligence
  • Security and integrity of government computer systems
  • ViCLAS coordination
  • Criminal profiling
  • Composite sketching
  • Specialized criminal identification
  • Centralized fingerprint database
  • Interpol liaison
  • QPIC management
  • Permanent emergency service unit
  • Coordination and registration of information in the National Sex Offender Registry.